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Diameter (km)1,392,684
Equator (km)4,370,005

<p>The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. </p>It is a sphere of plasma, with inner convective movement that generates a magnetic field by means of a dynamo process. It is by far the main source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers (864,000 miles), or 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth. It accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. Roughly three quarters of the Sun's mass is composed of hydrogen (~73%); the remainder is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller amounts of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.The Sun is a G-type main-sequence celebrity (G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it's informally rather than completely accurately referred to as a yellow dwarf (its light is closer to white than yellow). It formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Whereas the remainder flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System, most of this matter gathered in the center. The central mass became dense and so hot that it initiated nuclear fusion. It is believed that almost all stars form by this process.

The Sun fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second. This energy, which may take 170,000 and between 10,000 years to escape from its core, is the origin of the Sun's light and heat. When hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point where the Sun is no more in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand, eventually transforming the Sun into a red giant. It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the orbits of Venus and Mercury, and render Earth uninhabitable -- but not for about five billion years. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star called a white dwarf, and no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion. The Sun on Earth's effect has been recognized since ancient times, and some cultures as a deity have seen the Sun. Its orbit around the Sun and the synodic rotation of Earth will be the basis of solar calendars, among which is the calendar in use today.

Source: Wikipedia

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