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Brazil

Brazil
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Brazil
Population 204,450,649
Budget$ 18,785,000,000
Manpower 360000
Aircrafts 679
Fighters 42
Helicopters 179
Attack helicopters 12
Fleet 112
Aircraftcarriers 0
Submarines 7
Nuclear weapons 0

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After a coup detat perpetrated by the Brazilian Armed Forces with the support of the United States government against President Joao Guerra, the military dictatorship in Brazil (Portuguese ditadura militaritar) was established 1 April 1964. The Brazilian dictatorship lasted 21 years, ending on 15 March 1985. Jose de Magalhaes Pinto and Adhemar de Barrros were the ones who orchestrated the military coup. They were also the governors of Guanabara and Sao Paulo in the plot to depose Getulio Vagas in 1945. The most prominent commanders of Brazil's Army planned and executed the coup. They received support from almost all military officers, as well as conservative elements such the Catholic Church and anticommunist civil movements within the Brazilian middle and upper classes. The State Department of the United States supported it internationally through its embassy at Brasilia. In 1967, the military regime adopted a restrictive Constitution that restricted freedom of speech, as well as political opposition. The regime used nationalism, economic development and anti-communism to guide its actions. The so-called Brazilian Miracle was the catalyst for the dictatorship's popularity. However, the regime also censored all media and tortured and exiled dissidents. Joao Figueiredo was elected President in March 1979. He also passed the Amnesty Law in that year for political crimes against and for the regime. Figueiredo supported a re-democratization strategy and fought the hardliners within the government, but he could not control the collapse of the economy, chronic inflation, and the concurrent fall of other military dictatorships throughout South America.



1982 saw the first free elections for the national legislature since 20 years. This was despite massive protests from the citizens of the major cities. The opposition won a second election in 1985 to elect a new president. This was the first direct election since the 1960s. A new Constitution was adopted in 1988 and Brazil returned to democracy. The military has been under civilian control since then and plays no official role in domestic politics. The Brazilian military government was a model for all other dictatorships and military regimes in Latin America. It was systematized under the doctrine of national security, which justified military actions as being in the interests of national security during times of crisis. This intellectual foundation gave rise to other military regimes. Nearly 30 years after the collapse of the dictatorship, the Brazilian military acknowledged for the first times the abuses of its agents. This included the torture and murders of political dissidents. The May 2018 memorandum by Henry Kissinger, the Secretary of State of the United States, was released by the government. It dates back to April 1974, when Kissinger was still serving as Secretary of state. This document confirmed that the military regime in Brazil was aware of the killings. There were 434 confirmed deaths or disappearances, and more than 20,000 torture victims during the military dictatorship that ruled Brazil. Some human rights activists and others claim that this figure is much higher and should include thousands more indigenous victims who died due to the negligence of the regimes. However, the armed forces always dispute this.

Source: Wikipedia