Ashgabat (Turkmen: Aşgabat; Ашгабат, pronounced [ɑʃʁɑˈbɑt], Persian: عشق آباد; Russian: Ашхабад), formerly named Poltoratsk (Russian: Полтора́цк, IPA: [pəltɐˈratsk]) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It is situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range in Central Asia. It is also near the Iran-Turkmenistan border.
The city was founded in 1881 on the basis of an Ahal Teke tribal village, and made the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924.
Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg, French: Luxembourg, German: Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Luxembourgish: Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, French: Ville de Luxembourg, German: Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the country's most populous commune.Standing at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies in the center of Western Europe, located 213 km (132 mi) by road from Brussels, 372 kilometers (231 mi) from Paris, and 209 km (130 mi) from Cologne. The town comprises Luxembourg Castle, established by the Franks in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of 31 December 2019, Luxembourg City has a population of 122,273 inhabitants, which is more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune (Esch-sur-Alzette). The city's population includes 160 nationalities.
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