Ashgabat (Turkmen: Aşgabat; Ашгабат, pronounced [ɑʃʁɑˈbɑt], Persian: عشق آباد; Russian: Ашхабад), formerly named Poltoratsk (Russian: Полтора́цк, IPA: [pəltɐˈratsk]) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It is situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range in Central Asia. It is also near the Iran-Turkmenistan border.
The city was founded in 1881 on the basis of an Ahal Teke tribal village, and made the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924.
Graz ( GRAHTS, German: [ɡʁaːts] (listen); Slovene: Gradec) is the capital city of Styria and second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. As of 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276 (292,269 of whom had principal-residence status). In 2015, the population of the Graz larger urban zone (LUZ) stood at 633,168, based on principal-residence status. Graz has a long tradition as a seat of higher education. It has four colleges and four universities with more than 60,000 students. Its historic centre (Altstadt) is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe.