Ashgabat (Turkmen: Aşgabat; Ашгабат, pronounced [ɑʃʁɑˈbɑt], Persian: عشق آباد; Russian: Ашхабад), formerly named Poltoratsk (Russian: Полтора́цк, IPA: [pəltɐˈratsk]) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It is situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range in Central Asia. It is also near the Iran-Turkmenistan border.
The city was founded in 1881 on the basis of an Ahal Teke tribal village, and made the capital of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924.
Gaborone (UK: GAB-ə-ROH-nee, HAB-, US: GAH-bə-ROH-nee, -nay, Tswana: [χabʊˈrʊnɛ]) is the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 according to the 2011 census, roughly 10 percent of the total population of Botswana. Its agglomeration is home to 421,907 inhabitants in the 2011 census.
Gaborone City is located between Kgale Hill and Oodi Hill, near the confluence of the Notwane River and Segoditshane River at the south-eastern corner of Botswana, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) in the South African border. The town is served by the Sir Seretse Khama International Airport. It's an administrative district in its own right, but is the capital of the surrounding South-East District. Locals often refer to the city as GC or Motse-Mshate. The city of Gaborone is named after Chief Gaborone of the Tlokwa tribe, who dominated land nearby. Since it had no tribal affiliation and was near fresh water, the town was planned to be the capital in the mid-1960s when the Bechuanaland Protectorate became an independent nation.
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