The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., Constructed to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army (1775--1784) in the American Revolutionary War and the first President of the United States (1789--1797).Located almost due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial, the monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world's tallest predominantly stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 554 ft 7 11?32 inches (169.046 m) tall according to the U.S. National Geodetic Survey (measured 2013--14) or 555 ft 5 1?8 inches (169.294 m) tall according to the National Park Service (measured 1884). It's the tallest monumental column in the world if all are measured above their pedestrian entrances. Overtaking the Cologne Cathedral, it was the tallest structure in the world between 1884 and 1889, and it had been overtaken by the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Construction of the monument began in 1848 and was stopped for a period of 23 years, from 1854 to 1877 because of a lack of capital, a battle for control within the Washington National Monument Society, and the American Civil War. Although the stone structure was completed in 1884, inner ironwork, the knoll, and installation of memorial stones weren't completed until 1888. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 ft (46 m) or 27% up, shows where construction was halted and later resumed with marble from a different source. The original design was by Robert Mills (1781--1855) of South Carolina, but he did not include his proposed colonnade because of a lack of funds, proceeding only with a bare obelisk. The cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the first stone was set atop the unfinished stump on August 7, 1880; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884; the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885; and officially opened October 9, 1888. The Washington Monument is a hollow Egyptian style stone obelisk with a 500-foot (152.4 m) tall column surmounted by a 55-foot (16.8 m) tall pyramidion. Its walls are 15 feet (4.6 m) thick at its base and 1 1?2 ft (0.46 m) thick at their top. The marble pyramidion has thin walls only 7 inches (18 cm) thick supported by six arches, two between opposite walls which cross at the center of the pyramidion and four smaller corner arches.
The Shard, also referred to as the Shard of Glass, Shard London Bridge and Previously London Bridge Tower, is a 95-storey skyscraper, designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano, in Southwark, London, that forms a Part of the Shard Quarter development.Standing 309.6 metres (1,016 feet) high, the Shard is the tallest building in the United Kingdom, and the sixth-tallest construction in Europe. It is also the second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, after the concrete tower of the Emley Moor transmitting station. It replaced Southwark Towers, a 24-storey office block constructed on the website in 1975. The Shard's construction began in March 2009; it was topped out on 30 March 2012 and inaugurated on 5 July 2012. Practical completion was achieved in November 2012. The tower's privately operated observation deck, The View from The Shard, was opened to the general public on 1 February 2013. The glass-clad pyramidal tower includes 72 habitable floors, with a viewing gallery and open observation deck on the 72nd floor, at a height of 244 metres (801 ft). The Shard was developed by Sellar Property Group on behalf of LBQ Ltd and is collectively owned by Sellar Property (5%) and the State of Qatar (95%). The Shard is managed by Real Estate Management (UK) Limited on behalf of the owners. Source: Wikipedia
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