Hagia Sophia (; from Koin? Greek: ???? ?????, romanized: Hagía Sophía; Latin: Sancta Sophia, lit.'Holy Wisdom'), formally the Hagia Sophia Grand Mosque (Turkish: Ayasofya-i Kebir Cami-i ?erifi) and previously the Church of Hagia Sophia, is a Late Antique place of worship in Istanbul. Constructed in 537 since the patriarchal cathedral of the imperial capital of Constantinople, it was the largest Christian church of the eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire) and the Eastern Orthodox Church, except during the Latin Empire from 1204 to 1261, as it became the city's Roman Catholic cathedral. In 1453, after the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire, it was converted into a mosque. In 1935 the secular Turkish Republic established it as a museum. In 2020, it re-opened as a mosque. Constructed by the eastern Roman emperor Justinian I as the Christian cathedral of Constantinople for the state church of the Roman Empire between 532 and 537, the church was then the world's largest interior space and among the first to employ a fully pendentive dome. It is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have'changed the history of architecture'. The building was designed by the Greek geometers Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles. The present Justinianic construction was the third church of the same name to occupy the site, the prior one was destroyed in the Nika riots. Being the episcopal see of the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, it remained the world's largest cathedral for almost a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. Beginning with subsequent Byzantine architecture, Hagia Sophia became the paradigmatic Orthodox church form and its architectural style was emulated by Ottoman mosques a thousand years later. It has been described as'holding a unique position in the Christian world', and architectural and cultural icon of Byzantine and Eastern Orthodox civilization.The church has been dedicated to the Holy Wisdom, the Logos, the second person of the Trinity. Its patronal feast falls on 25 December (Christmas), the commemoration of the incarnation of the Logos in Christ. Sophia is the Latin transliteration of the Greek word for wisdom and, although sometimes referred to as Sancta Sophia,'Saint Sophia', it's not connected with Sophia that the Martyr. The centre of the Eastern Orthodox Church for almost one thousand years, the construction witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius officially delivered by Humbert of Silva Candida, the papal envoy of Pope Leo IX in 1054, an act that's usually considered the beginning of the East--West Schism.
The Inco Superstack in Sudbury, Ontario, with a height of 381 metres (1,250 ft), is the tallest chimney in Canada and the Western hemisphere, and the 2nd tallest freestanding chimney in the world after the GRES-2 Power Station in Kazakhstan. It's also the second tallest freestanding structure of any kind in Canada, behind the CN Tower but forward of First Canadian Place. It's the 40th tallest freestanding structure in the world. The Superstack is situated on top of the biggest nickel smelting operation in the world at Vale's Copper Cliff processing centre in the city of Greater Sudbury. In 2018, Vale declared that the stack will be decommissioned and dismantled beginning in 2020. On July 28, 2020, Vale declared that the stack had been officially taken out of service, but would remain operational in standby mode for two more months as a backup in case of a malfunction in the new system, after which the dismantling of this Superstack will begin. In addition to further reducing sulfur dioxide emissions by 85 percent, the decommissioning of the pile is expected to cut the complex's natural gas consumption in half.Source: Wikipedia
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