The Burj Khalifa (Arabic: ??? ?????, Arabic pronunciation: [b?rd?? xa?li?fa]; pronounced English: ), known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 feet, just over half a mile) and a roof height (excluding antenna, but such as a 244 m spire) of 828 m (2,717 feet ), the Burj Khalifa has been the tallest structure and building in the world since its topping out in 2009 (preceded by Taipei 101).Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior finished five decades later in 2009. The principal structure is reinforced concrete. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. It is designed to be the centrepiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to construct the building relies on the government's decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to obtain international recognition. The building was originally named Burj Dubai but was renamed in honour of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest building in the world.
Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Hyder Consulting was selected to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited selected to supervise the architecture of this project. The design is derived from the Islamic architecture of the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra.
Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower
AON Hanoi Landmark Tower (or AON Landmark 72) is a mixed-use supertall skyscraper at Pham Hung road, Nam T? Liêm district, Hanoi, Vietnam.The complex contains a single 72-story mixed-use tower with the height of 350 m and two 48-storey resort twin towers. Landmark 72 is located on an area of 46,054 m2 and the whole floor area is 609,673 m2, ranked 5th as the largest floor area of one building in the world. The investor, and executor and operator, of the complex is that the South Korea-based company Keangnam Enterprises, Ltd.. The investment capital is estimated at US$1.05 billion.On November 2010, the main tower reached approximately 300 metres, making it the tallest building and construction in Vietnam. On 24 January 2011, the main tower topped out at 350 metres; it became the tallest building in Vietnam while the other two towers had topped out months before using the height of 212 metres. The complex includes a 5-star InterContinental hotel, offices, amusement areas, retail spaces, clinics and convention centres. The complex opened on 18 May 2012. Landmark 72 is the world's 35th-highest construction and previously was the greatest on Indochina Peninsula. Keangnam Enterprises indirectly owned a 70-per cent stake in Landmark 72. The company spent over US$ 1 billion with US$ 510 million borrowed from banks.On 11 June 2008, an agreement was signed between the building owner and the InterContinental Hotels Group to run the 359-room resort under InterContinental Hanoi Landmark 72 with 9 hotel floors from 62nd floor to 70th floor (Hotel Club Lounge located on the 71st Floor). Landmark 72 is the website of Vietnam's highest stair climbing race, the Vietnam Landmark 72 Hanoi Vertical Run. On 30 September 2012, runners competed for the first time to be the fastest to ascend the tower's 1,914 steps. Reported in ancient 2016 was that a Vietnamese court valued the complex at US$ 770 million in May 2015 and AON Holdings from South Korea would assume the bank loan by paying US$ 373.4 million to become the majority owner.In early 2017, it emerged that a bribery scheme associated with a proposed sale of Landmark 72 building complex in 2014 caused the arrest and charge of former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon's nephew and charge of Ban's brother, Ban Ki-sang, an executive of South Korean company Keangnam Enterprises Co Ltd.. In 2013, Keangnam was facing a liquidity crisis and intended to refinance or sale of the complex. When the'deal' eventually fell through, Keangnam entered into court receivership in South Korea. Additionally, Malcolm Albert Harris, a self proclaimed New York City fashion designer who pled guilty to stealing US$500,000 as part of a phony negotiation to sell Landmark 72 to a Qatari royal. Source: Wikipedia
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