The Burj Khalifa (Arabic: ??? ?????, Arabic pronunciation: [b?rd?? xa?li?fa]; pronounced English: ), known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 feet, just over half a mile) and a roof height (excluding antenna, but such as a 244 m spire) of 828 m (2,717 feet ), the Burj Khalifa has been the tallest structure and building in the world since its topping out in 2009 (preceded by Taipei 101).Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior finished five decades later in 2009. The principal structure is reinforced concrete. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. It is designed to be the centrepiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to construct the building relies on the government's decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to obtain international recognition. The building was originally named Burj Dubai but was renamed in honour of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest building in the world.
Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Hyder Consulting was selected to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited selected to supervise the architecture of this project. The design is derived from the Islamic architecture of the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra.
The Inco Superstack in Sudbury, Ontario, with a height of 381 metres (1,250 ft), is the tallest chimney in Canada and the Western hemisphere, and the 2nd tallest freestanding chimney in the world after the GRES-2 Power Station in Kazakhstan. It's also the second tallest freestanding structure of any kind in Canada, behind the CN Tower but forward of First Canadian Place. It's the 40th tallest freestanding structure in the world. The Superstack is situated on top of the biggest nickel smelting operation in the world at Vale's Copper Cliff processing centre in the city of Greater Sudbury. In 2018, Vale declared that the stack will be decommissioned and dismantled beginning in 2020. On July 28, 2020, Vale declared that the stack had been officially taken out of service, but would remain operational in standby mode for two more months as a backup in case of a malfunction in the new system, after which the dismantling of this Superstack will begin. In addition to further reducing sulfur dioxide emissions by 85 percent, the decommissioning of the pile is expected to cut the complex's natural gas consumption in half.Source: Wikipedia
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